CONTENTS of journal "Promyshlennoye proizvodstvo i ispol'zovaniye elastomerov" ("INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION AND USE OF ELASTOMERS") 3•2021 (Russia)

https://doi.org/10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-3-12 
50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE CREATION OF THE FACULTY OF POLYMERS AT THE KAZAN STATE CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE NAMED AFTER S.M. KIROV AND THE ANNIVERSARY OF THE INSTITUTE OF POLYMERS OF THE KAZAN NATIONAL RESEARCH TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY (pp. 3-12)
Grigoriev E.I., Kazakov YU.M., Iaroshevskaia KH.M., Safiullina T.R., Stoyanov O.V.
Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia
ABSTRACT
The article is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Institute of Polymers of the Kazan National Research Technological University. The role of representatives of the Kazan school of chemists in the development of polymer science and industry in Kazan and the Republic of Tatarstan is shown. During the years of rapid development of the industry of high-molecular compounds, it became necessary to train specialists in the field of technology and processing of polymers. In this regard, the departments of Synthetic Rubber Technology and Plastics Technology were organized, which served as the basis for the creation of the Faculty of Polymers in 1971. The development of polymer science and, as a result, the expansion of the range of specialties and the creation of new departments initiated the transformation of the faculty into the Institute of Polymers in 1999, as a natural result of the development of the Kazan School of Chemistry. At present, the Institute of Polymers consists of two faculties, 9 departments and more than 60 professors and doctors of sciences. Along with traditional scientific areas in the field of chemistry, technology and polymer processing, new areas are developing, for example, polymer smart materials, etc. The Institute of Polymers has trained thousands of highly qualified specialists who have achieved great success in scientific and government activities, have become honored workers in their fields. Wherever the graduates of the Institute of Polymers work, they are characterized by high professionalism, perseverance and dedication to the chosen profession, and a keen attitude to the work.
KEYWORDS: Institute of Polymers, Kazan National Research Technological University, Kazan School of Chemists, macromolecular compounds, technology and processing of polymers, new polymeric materials.
For citation: Grigoriev E.I., Kazakov Yu.M., Yaroshevskaya H.M., Safiullina T.R., Stoyanov O.V. 50th anniversary of the creation of the faculty of polymers at the Kazan state chemical technological institute named after S.M. Kirov and the anniversary of the institute of polymers of the Kazan national research technological university. Prom. Proizvod. Ispol’z. Elastomerov, 2021, no. 3, pp. 3-12. DOI: 10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-3-12. (In Russ.).

https://doi.org/10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-13-21 
MODERN TRENDS IN THE FIELD OF MODIFICATION OF ELASTOMERS BY HIGH-MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS AND OLIGOMERS (REVIEW) (pp. 13-21)
Abzaldinov H.S., Yarullin A.F. 
Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia
ABSTRACT
Elastomers and compositions based on them are one of the most important materials that are widely used in various branches of science and technology. The existing disadvantages of this class of chemical compounds limit their wider application and are eliminated by modification with additives for various purposes.
The review investigates current trends in the modification of elastomers and compositions based on them with high molecular weight compounds and oligomers. Modification with epoxy and phenol-containing resins, water-soluble acryl-containing compounds, as well as ultra-high molecular weight polyolefins, silsesquioxanes, and polymer wastes is considered. It is shown that the search for effective high-molecular softeners and activation of the surface properties of nanofillers by oligomeric compounds are among the main problems solved in the modification process. In addition, an urgent task is to increase the heat resistance of elastomers and compositions based on them due to the introduction of various additives, the most effective of which are epoxy oligomers.
KEYWORDS: elastomers, modification, epoxy resins, water-soluble polymers, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene, silsesquioxanes, polymer waste.
For citation: Abzaldinov H.S., Yarullin A.F. Modern trends in the field of modification of elastomers by high-molecular compounds and oligomers (Review). Prom. Proizvod. Ispol’z. Elastomerov, 2021, no. 3, pp. 13-21. DOI: 10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-13-21. (In Russ.).

https://doi.org/10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-22-26 
EXPERIMENTAL AND INDUSTRIAL APPROBATION OF PROTEIN-LIPID SYSTEMS IN RUBBER RECIPES (pp. 22-26)
Rakhmatullina A.P.1, Tran Huu Thanh2, Nguyen Duc Long2, Semyonova N.A.3
1Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia
2Institute of Propellants and Explosives, Vietnam
3Cheboksary production association n.a. V.I. Chapaev, Russia
ABSTRACT
The results of experimental-industrial testing of protein-lipid systems as modifiers of rubbers based on isoprene rubber SKI-3 and SKI-3 in combination with butadiene-α-methylstyrene rubber SKMS-30 ARK are presented. The production of rubber mixtures was carried out on rollers LB 320 160/160.The vulcanization of rubber compounds was carried out in a double-deck electrically heated press at a temperature of 150°C. The rheometric characteristics of the rubber compounds were determined on a MonTech MDR 3000 Basic instrument at a temperature of 150oC.The influence of these modifiers on the properties of rubbers was established, in particular, for rubbers based on SKI-3, an increase in the conditional strength at rupture by 30%, tear resistance — by 55%, adhesion strength (between the layers «rubber-fabric» — by 37%, «metal-rubber» — on average by 20%). Modified rubbers are also characterized by higher resistance to heat aging. Protein-lipid systems can also find application in the production of rubbers based on a combination of rubbers.
KEYWORDS: modification, keratin protein hydrolyzate, phospholipid concentrate, protein-lipid complexes, rubber compounds, vulcanizates, physical and mechanical properties.
For citation: Rakhmatullina A.P., Tran H.T., Nguyen D.L. Semyonova N.A. Experimental and industrial approbation of protein-lipid systems in rubber recipes. Prom. Proizvod. Ispol’z. Elastomerov, 2021, no. 3, pp. 22-26. DOI: 10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-22-26. (In Russ.).

https://doi.org/10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-27-32 
PREPARATION OF EPOXY COMPOSITIONS MODIFIED WITH CARBON NANOTUBES AND NONIONIC SURFACTANT (pp. 27-32)
Bogdanova S.A., Gataullin A.R., Rakhmatullina A.P., Galyametdinov Yu.G.
Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia
ABSTRACT
Carbon nanotubes are modifiers of the entire complex of polymer composites properties. In this work, the processes of ultrasonic dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in non-aqueous liquid media using a nonionic high-molecular surfactant diproxamine DPA-157have been studied. Stable dispersions were obtained in solvents — acetone, toluene and in plasticizers — dibutyl phthalate and diethylene glycol diglycidyl ether DEG-1.The study of the structure of dispersions by confocal microscopy confirms the dispersing effect of the surfactant. The optimal concentration of carbon nanotubes was determined on the basis of measuring the optical density of dispersions by the spectrophotometric method. Cured epoxy compositions were obtained using nanomodified plasticizers as components of the formulation. Physicomechanical tests showed that the introduction of carbon nanotubes into the composite leads to an improvement in the physical and mechanical characteristics — an increase in the fracture stress and yield stress, an increase in the elastic modulus.
KEYWORDS: carbon nanotubes, ultrasonic dispersion, surfactant, plasticizers, epoxy compositions.
For citation: Bogdanova S.A., Gataullin A.R., Rakhmatullina A.P., Galyametdinov Yu.G. Preparation of epoxy compositions modified with carbon nanotubes and nonionic surfactant. Prom. Proizvod. Ispol’z. Elastomerov, 2021, no. 3, pp. 27-32. DOI: 10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-27-32. (In Russ.).

https://doi.org/10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-33-37 
INFLUENCE OF SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE ON THE PROPERTIES OF HIGHLY FILLED VULCANIZATES BASED ON NITRILE-BUTADIENE RUBBER (pp.33-37)
Cherezova E.N., Karaseva Yu.S., Galikhanov M.F.
Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia
ABSTRACT
The rheometric, physical-mechanical and sorption properties of vulcanizates based on nitrile-butadiene rubber are studied. The optimal modes of obtaining rubber compounds and the technological parameters of their vulcanization are established. The vulcanizates have high sorption capacity in aqueous media. It is shown that the introduction of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) leads to a decrease in the physical-mechanical characteristics of the vulcanizates. This is due to the low adhesion between the polymers and to the large difference in the elastic modulus of the polymer ingredients of the rubber compounds. An increase in the particle size of NaCMC leads to a decrease in the strength characteristics of the materials. It is recommended to use the obtained materials for the manufacture of sealing elements of water-swelling packers.
KEYWORDS: swelling packer, swelling, rubber, BNR, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose.
For citation: Cherezova E.N., Karaseva Yu.S., Galikhanov M.F. Influence of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose on the properties of highly filled vulcanizates based on nitrile-butadiene rubber. Prom. Proizvod. Ispol’z. Elastomerov, 2021, no. 3, pp. 33-37. DOI: 10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-33-37. (In Russ.).

https://doi.org/10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-38-43
INFLUENCE OF EPOXY RUBBERS ON THE RELAXATION PROPERTIES OF EPOXY POLYMERS WITH A SHAPE MEMORY EFFECT (pp.38-43)
Stroganov V.F.1, Akhmetshin A.S.2, Amelchenko M.O.2, Stroganov I.V.1, Stoyanov O.V.1
1Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering, Russia
2Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering, Russia
ABSTRACT
One of the urgent problems of polymer materials science is the modification of cross-linked polymers with reactive elastomers, including the manufacture of products with shape memory effect (SME). To regulate the elastic-deformation characteristics of amine and anhydride curing epoxy polymers, epoxy urethane rubbers are used in the composition of epoxy compositions. Heat-shrinkable couplings with SME were made by deformation on a mandrel in a highly elastic state of epoxy-polymer blanks obtained by pouring and subsequent curing in the annular gap of the mold. It has been established that after mandrel crimping, the couplings are in a stress-strain state (SSS), as evidenced by the data on the change in the level of elasticity moduli, both in the axial and radial directions: before crimping, Ex = 2.8 GPa and Ey = 3.1 GPa and after backing, Ex = 3.04 GPa and Ey = 3.21 GPa. It is shown that after shrinkage (as a result of relaxation), the stress-strain state of the couplings is leveled (disappears). A coupling-glue technology has been developed for joining both polymer and composite couplings (glass and carbon fiber) of various pipelines with a diameter of up to 110 mm. The technology has been implemented on a pilot scale at a number of enterprises.
KEYWORDS: reactive epoxy rubbers, deformation, shape memory, stress-strain state, relaxation, muffle-adhesive joint.
For citation: Stroganov V.F., Akhmetshin A.S., Amelchenko M.O., Stroganov I.V., Stoyanov O.V. Influence of epoxy rubbers on the relaxation properties of epoxy polymers with a shape memory effect. Prom. Proizvod. Ispol’z. Elastomerov, 2021, no. 3, pp. 38-43. DOI: 10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-38-43. (In Russ.).

https://doi.org/10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-44-50 
CHANGES IN POLYMER FILM SURFACE PROPERTIES AFTER SHORT-TERM CORONA TREATMENT (pp. 44-50)
Grigor’yev A.Yu.1, Yefremova A.A.2, Garipov R.M.2
1Danaflex NANO, Russia
2Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia
ABSTRACT
We studied short-term corona treatment of a multilayer heat shrink film with a polyethylene outer layer and a single-layer non-oriented polyethylene film. We evaluated the adhesion of a UV coating to the surfaces of the activated and non-activated films. It was determined that short-term corona treatment does not lead to the formation of oxygenated functional groups on the surface of the sample films. Using AFM we determined that short-term corona treatment form an even homogenous structure of various in height peaks, which could be explained by ongoing shrinking processes on the surface layer. We studied the adhesion of dielectric powders to the treated and untreated surfaces of the polymer films to reveal the distribution of electric charges on the film surface. The current study determined that the main factors improving the print impression on the surface of polyethylene films after short-term corona treatment are electrification and topological structure changes of the polymer film surface.
KEYWORDS: multilayer heat shrink film, polyethylene, corona treatment, topological structure, electrification, adhesion, printing paint.
For citation: Grigor’yev A.Yu., Yefremova A.A., Garipov R.M. Changes in polymer film surface properties after short-term corona treatment. Prom. Proizvod. Ispol’z. Elastomerov, 2021, no. 3, pp. 44-50. DOI: 10.24412/2071- 8268-2021-3-44-50. (In Russ.).

https://doi.org/10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-51-57 
INFLUENCE OF THE METHOD OF MODIFYING THE CRUSHED VULCANIZATE ON THE PROPERTIES OF OIL AND PETROL RESISTANT ELASTOMERIC COMPOSITIONS (pp.51-57)
Myadelets V.V.1, Kasperovich A.V.2, Prokopchuk N.R.2, Stoyanov O.Vl.3, Mozyrev A.G.4
1EnCata LTD, Belarus
2Belarusian State Technological University, Belarus
3Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia
4Tyumen industrial University, Russia
ABSTRACT
In paper, the influence of the modification method applied to ground vulcanizate (GV) on properties of elastomeric compositions based on nitrile rubber is discussed. Modified GV was mixed with the elastomeric composition which is used for the manufacturing of oil-petroleum-resistant rubber products. The work takes into consideration two types of GV with different chemical nature. The first GV type is rubber crumb produced from end-of-life tires. The second GV type is obtained from rubber wastes based on nitrile rubber. Three methods of the modification are compared in the research: by mechanical activation in a planetary ball mill, swelling in a Polyethylene glycol PEG-400 medium, and the mechanical and chemical modification of GV with PEG-4000. It was found that with additional modification of crushed vulcanizates and their subsequent introduction into the composition of elastomeric compositions based on butadiene-nitrile rubber, it is possible to obtain rubbers for oil-and-petrol-resistant molded rubber goods with increased resistance to the accumulation of permanent compression deformation without a significant decrease in tensile strength.
KEYWORDS: ground vulcanizate, nitrile rubber, swelling, compression set, filler, mechanical activation, cross-linking density.
For citation: Myadelets V.V., Kasperovich A.V., Prokopchuk N.R., Stoyanov O.Vl., Mozyrev A.G. Influence of the method of modifying the crushed vulcanizate on the properties of oil and petrol resistant elastomeric compositions. Prom. Proizvod. Ispol’z. Elastomerov, 2021, no. 3, pp. 51-57. DOI: 10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-51-57. (In Russ.).

https://doi.org/10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-58-62 
INTERACTION OF ADHESIVE WITH SUBSTRATE SURFACE IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS BASED ON LIGNOCELLULOSE RAW MATERIALS (pp. 58-62)
Khaziakhmedova R.M., Grachev A.N., Bashkirov V.N., Valiullina A.I., Slobozhaninova M.V.
Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia
ABSTRACT
The article deals with the issues of improving the adhesion between two dissimilar components, namely, the degree of influence of heat treatment of plant aggregate to ensure a strong adhesive interaction in composite building materials. The optimal composition of the building thermal insulation material based on wood aggregate and a complex binder is determined.
KEYWORDS: adhesion, composite material, torrefaction, compressive strength.
For citation: Khaziakhmedova R.M., Grachev A.N., Bashkirov V.N., Valiullina A.I., Slobozhaninova M.V. Interaction of adhesive with substrate surface in composite materials based on lignocellulose raw materials. Prom. Proizvod. Ispol’z. Elastomerov, 2021, no. 3, pp. 58-62. DOI: 10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-58-62. (In Russ.).

https://doi.org/10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-63-68
THE USE OF NEURAL NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES FOR CALCULATING THE CONCENTRATIONS OF IMPURITIES IN THE ATMOSPHERIC AIR IN THE TERRITORY OF POLYMER PRODUCTION (FOR EXAMPLE, NIZHNEKAMSK) (pp.63-68)
Tunakova Yu.A.1, Novikova S.V.1, ShagidullinArtur R.2, Valiev V.S.2, Kuznetsova О.N.3
1Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N. Tupolev–KAI, Russia
2Research Institute for Problems of Ecology and Mineral Wealth Use of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, Russia
3Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia
ABSTRACT
Innovative computational technologies are proposed for determining the concentrations of emission components in the surface layer of atmospheric air on the territory of polymer production. The need to calculate the concentrations of impurities coming from stationary sources of emissions is associated with the multicomponent composition of emissions and the impossibility of experimental full-scale determination. Methods of increasing the accuracy of computational models through the use of neural network technologies and accounting for secondary chemical reactions of impurities in the atmosphere are considered. Computational experiments were carried out, predictors of neural network models were justified, and a significant increase in accuracy was achieved in comparison with regulated computational schemes.
KEYWORDS: polymer production, emission components, calculation of surface concentrations, neural network technologies.
For citation: Tunakova Y.A., Novikova S.V., ShagidullinA.R., Valiev V.S., Kuznetsova О.N. The use of neural network technologies for calculating the concentrations of impurities in the atmospheric air in the territory of polymer production (for example, Nizhnekamsk). Prom. Proizvod. Ispol’z. Elastomerov, 2021, no. 3, pp. 63-68. DOI: 10.24412/2071-8268-2021-3-63-68. (In Russ.).

 

 

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